PGP Key Rotation

I am replacing my current PGP key, 6612FE85, with a new key, 1E016BE8, as of 1 July 2009. A signed version of this announcement can be found here.

5FE6 76B9 9696 DB6E 0B2B  B2A7 2956 B173 1E01 6BE8

SuperGenPass for cellphones and the command line

SuperGenPass and Password Composer are password generators, which generate different passwords for each site you use based on a single master password. This gives you the convenience of only remembering one password as well as the security of using different (and strong) passwords for each site. This means that you won't have all your accounts compromised when1 one of them is compromised.

Most password generators are implemented as browser extensions or bookmarklets, since they are most frequently needed in a web browser. I've been wanting to start using a password generator, but I wanted to be sure that I could access my accounts even if I didn't have a web browser accessible. The two situations I could think of were a command line only system (e.g. SSH) and my cellphone2.

Surprisingly, I couldn't find a command line implementation of SuperGenPass, so I wrote one in Python. I also couldn't find any J2ME or Symbian implementations, and so wrote my own one in J2ME. They both support subdomain stripping and configurable password lengths. They don't support salted passwords.

I chose SuperGenPass over Password Composer because it uses a better scheme. Password Composer only uses hex characters, whereas SuperGenPass uses a base64 encoded hash. SuperGenPass also hashes the password multiple times (which would slow down a brute force attack to find the master password) and imposes complexity requirements on the generated password (which reduces the chances that the generated password can be brute forced).

  1. "When", not "if". 

  2. Although my phone's browser does support JavaScript, the JavaScript MD5 implementation commonly used by password generators doesn't work correctly on it. 

Content negotiation with Lighttpd and Lua

Following on from yesterday's post, I decided to try implement proper content negotiation. After a fair amount of time spent getting to grips with [Lua][], I got a [script][] which works very nicely. It implements [server driven][] content negotiation for [media types][mime].

The basic idea of content negotiation is that a resource (e.g., this [graph][]) exists in multiple formats (in this case, [SVG][graph-svg], [PNG][graph-png] and [GIF][graph-gif]). When a user agent requests the resource, it indicates which formats it understands by listing them in the Accept header. The server compares these to the available formats and sends the best one. So a browser which can display [SVG][] will receive the diagram in SVG format, while a browser which can't will receive it in [PNG][] (or [GIF][]) format.

(The following description assumes knowledge of the Accept header format.)

The script works by searching the directory for files with the requested name but with an additional extension (each of which is a variant). The [media type][mime] is inferred from the extension using /etc/mime.types, and the quality of the type is set by a hardcoded table in the script. Each variant is checked against the acceptable types sent by the user agent, and the overall quality calculated by multiplying the quality with the q parameter in the Accept header. The variant with the highest overall quality is then chosen.

Some browsers include wildcard entries such as image/* and */* in the Accept header without specifying a q parameter. This parameter defaults to 1 (the highest value), which means that no preference is actually indicated. The script implements the same [hack][] that [Apache][] does in order to compensate for this. It also handles directory index files by defaulting to files named "index".

To install the [script][], download and save it somewhere (such as /etc/lighttpd/). Then add the following to the site definition.

magnet.attract-physical-path-to = ("/etc/lighttpd/negotiate.lua")

Serving static files without file extensions using Lighttpd and Lua

URLs shouldn't really contain file extensions (like .html, .png) since they are supposed to identify a resource and not a particular representation/format thereof. The format is indicated by the Content-Type header sent in the response. Modern CMSs do this already (for example, the URL of this page doesn't include .html).

Doing the same for static files (i.e. files served directly by the webserver) isn't straightforward because most webservers use the file extension to determine the MIME type to send in the Content-Type header. This means that simply removing the file extension from the filename (or even creating a symlink without a file extension) will cause the webserver to send the wrong Content-Type header.

I decided to try find a solution to this for my webserver of choice, Lighttpd. Lighttpd has a module which embeds a [Lua][] interpreter and allows you to write scripts which modify (or even handle) requests. So I wrote a [script][] which searches the directory for files with the same name as requested but with an extension. This means that any file can be accessed with the file extension removed from the URL while still having the correct Content-Type.

The script currently chooses the first matching file, which means that having multiple files with the same name but different extensions doesn't do anything useful. The proper method however is to actually do [content negotiation][], which chooses the format based on the preferences indicated by the HTTP client in the Accept header.

To use this script, download it and save it somewhere (I use /etc/lighttpd/). Enable mod_magnet, and add the following line to the site definition.

magnet.attract-physical-path-to = ("/etc/lighttpd/extension.lua")

SSH agent forwarding and screen

I recently came across an article which tries to address the problem of SSH agent forwarding with screen. Briefly, the problem is that reattaching a screen instance breaks agent forwarding because the required environment variables aren't present in the screen instance. The solution given didn't quite work for me though because I use an SSH wrapper script which automatically runs screen.

My solution is to write a screen wrapper script which stores the environment variables in ~/.sshvars (as export statements) and then starts screen. Running source ~/.sshvars in the shell then makes the variables available. (I created an alias called fixssh to do this.)

I like to put wrapper scripts in ~/bin with the same name. This didn't work out the box however, since ~/bin is only added to PATH in ~/.profile but this file is only sourced if the shell is interactive. The fix is therefore to add the following to ~/.bashrc, but near the top before the [ -z "$PS1" ] && return line.

if [ -d "$HOME/bin" ]; then

Reduce spam by enforcing valid standards

One of the most effective anti-spam measures one can implement is to enforce valid use of SMTP and other standards. Spam clients are interested in sending messages as quickly as possible, and so usually don't bother with actually implementing standards correctly. In this post I shall describe the various checks which can be used, show how to implement these checks in Postfix, and describe how to ensure that your mail server passes these checks when sending mail.

Reverse DNS Entries

RFC 1912 states that "every Internet-reachable host should have a name" and "make sure your PTR and A records match". This can be checked by performing a Forward Confirmed reverse DNS lookup1. This check can be done before even accepting the TCP connection, which means the mail server's existence isn't even revealed to rejected clients.

Postfix: Add reject_unknown_client_hostname to smtpd_client_restrictions.
Passing: Ensure that your mail server has matching PTR and A records.

HELO/EHLO Hostname

RFC 2821 states that "a client SHOULD start an SMTP session by issuing the EHLO command". Almost all SMTP client implementations do do this, and so we can require the use of HELO/EHLO.

Postfix: Set smtpd_helo_required = yes.

RFC 2821 states that "the argument field [of the HELO/EHLO command] contains the fully-qualified domain name of the SMTP client if one is available". Since external mail servers have to be Internet reachable this is a requirement, and can be checked by looking up the name in DNS2.

Postfix: Add reject_invalid_helo_hostname, reject_non_fqdn_helo_hostname and reject_unknown_helo_hostname to smtpd_helo_restrictions.
Passing: Ensure that your mail server is configured to send a fully qualified hostname which exists in DNS.

If there is only one mail server (and possibly even if there are multiple servers), SMTP clients should not be using the server's hostname as the HELO hostname. Clients which do so can therefore be rejected.

Postfix: Add check_helo_access hash:/etc/postfix/helo_access to smtpd_helo_restrictions. Use helo_access as a template for /etc/postfix/helo_access, and run postmap /etc/postfix/helo_access afterwards.

Originator Address

The originator (MAIL FROM) address is where error reports will be sent, and therefore should be a valid address. The only thing which can be checked though is that the address is fully qualified and that the domain exists.

Postfix: Add reject_non_fqdn_sender and reject_unknown_sender_domain to smtpd_sender_restrictions.
Passing: Ensure that your mail server only emits fully qualified addresses. This should happen by default, except possibly for mail submitted with sendmail.

Recipient Addresses

Unless the mail server is a relay or backup MX, it should already only be accepting addresses for which it is the destination. If it is a relay or backup MX the same checks as above can be done.

Postfix: Add reject_non_fqdn_recipient and reject_unknown_recipient_domain to smtpd_recipient_restrictions.

One other check has to do with multiple recipients for bounced mail. Error reports for bounced mail uses a null originator address, and should only have one recipient.

Postfix: Add reject_multi_recipient_bounce to smtpd_data_restrictions.


Unless the client explicitly requests pipelining (as described in RFC 1854), the SMTP conversation must occur in lock step (i.e. the client must wait for a response from the server before sending the next command). Since spam clients are trying to send messages as quickly as possible it is likely that they do not adhere to this requirement.

Postfix: Add reject_unauth_pipelining to smtpd_data_restrictions.

RFC 2821 specifies that the server must send the first message after the connection is established. A neat trick is to delay this initial message to catch out clients which don't wait for it.

Postfix: Add sleep 1, reject_unauth_pipelining to smtpd_client_restrictions. This also requires smtpd_delay_reject = no (explained below).


Since these measures will reject valid mail from misconfigured mail servers, I like to keep an eye on rejections via logcheck. However, some of these measures by their very nature reject the client before it's even sent the originator and recipient addresses, which makes identification of valid mail difficult. Postfix therefore has a feature which delays rejection until after the recipient addresses have been sent. This is enabled by default, but can be disabled by setting smtpd_delay_reject = no.

  1. A reverse DNS lookup is done on the client's IP address, and a forward lookup then done on the resulting hostname. This forward lookup should yield the client's IP address. 

  2. Note that there is no required link between the HELO hostname and the client's PTR record.