PGP Key Rotation

I am replacing my current PGP key, 6612FE85, with a new key, 1E016BE8, as of 1 July 2009. A signed version of this announcement can be found here.

5FE6 76B9 9696 DB6E 0B2B  B2A7 2956 B173 1E01 6BE8

SuperGenPass for cellphones and the command line

SuperGenPass and Password Composer are password generators, which generate different passwords for each site you use based on a single master password. This gives you the convenience of only remembering one password as well as the security of using different (and strong) passwords for each site. This means that you won't have all your accounts compromised when1 one of them is compromised.

Most password generators are implemented as browser extensions or bookmarklets, since they are most frequently needed in a web browser. I've been wanting to start using a password generator, but I wanted to be sure that I could access my accounts even if I didn't have a web browser accessible. The two situations I could think of were a command line only system (e.g. SSH) and my cellphone2.

Surprisingly, I couldn't find a command line implementation of SuperGenPass, so I wrote one in Python. I also couldn't find any J2ME or Symbian implementations, and so wrote my own one in J2ME. They both support subdomain stripping and configurable password lengths. They don't support salted passwords.

I chose SuperGenPass over Password Composer because it uses a better scheme. Password Composer only uses hex characters, whereas SuperGenPass uses a base64 encoded hash. SuperGenPass also hashes the password multiple times (which would slow down a brute force attack to find the master password) and imposes complexity requirements on the generated password (which reduces the chances that the generated password can be brute forced).

  1. "When", not "if". 

  2. Although my phone's browser does support JavaScript, the JavaScript MD5 implementation commonly used by password generators doesn't work correctly on it. 

Content negotiation with Lighttpd and Lua

Following on from yesterday's post, I decided to try implement proper content negotiation. After a fair amount of time spent getting to grips with [Lua][], I got a [script][] which works very nicely. It implements [server driven][] content negotiation for [media types][mime].

The basic idea of content negotiation is that a resource (e.g., this [graph][]) exists in multiple formats (in this case, [SVG][graph-svg], [PNG][graph-png] and [GIF][graph-gif]). When a user agent requests the resource, it indicates which formats it understands by listing them in the Accept header. The server compares these to the available formats and sends the best one. So a browser which can display [SVG][] will receive the diagram in SVG format, while a browser which can't will receive it in [PNG][] (or [GIF][]) format.

(The following description assumes knowledge of the Accept header format.)

The script works by searching the directory for files with the requested name but with an additional extension (each of which is a variant). The [media type][mime] is inferred from the extension using /etc/mime.types, and the quality of the type is set by a hardcoded table in the script. Each variant is checked against the acceptable types sent by the user agent, and the overall quality calculated by multiplying the quality with the q parameter in the Accept header. The variant with the highest overall quality is then chosen.

Some browsers include wildcard entries such as image/* and */* in the Accept header without specifying a q parameter. This parameter defaults to 1 (the highest value), which means that no preference is actually indicated. The script implements the same [hack][] that [Apache][] does in order to compensate for this. It also handles directory index files by defaulting to files named "index".

To install the [script][], download and save it somewhere (such as /etc/lighttpd/). Then add the following to the site definition.

magnet.attract-physical-path-to = ("/etc/lighttpd/negotiate.lua")

Serving static files without file extensions using Lighttpd and Lua

URLs shouldn't really contain file extensions (like .html, .png) since they are supposed to identify a resource and not a particular representation/format thereof. The format is indicated by the Content-Type header sent in the response. Modern CMSs do this already (for example, the URL of this page doesn't include .html).

Doing the same for static files (i.e. files served directly by the webserver) isn't straightforward because most webservers use the file extension to determine the MIME type to send in the Content-Type header. This means that simply removing the file extension from the filename (or even creating a symlink without a file extension) will cause the webserver to send the wrong Content-Type header.

I decided to try find a solution to this for my webserver of choice, Lighttpd. Lighttpd has a module which embeds a [Lua][] interpreter and allows you to write scripts which modify (or even handle) requests. So I wrote a [script][] which searches the directory for files with the same name as requested but with an extension. This means that any file can be accessed with the file extension removed from the URL while still having the correct Content-Type.

The script currently chooses the first matching file, which means that having multiple files with the same name but different extensions doesn't do anything useful. The proper method however is to actually do [content negotiation][], which chooses the format based on the preferences indicated by the HTTP client in the Accept header.

To use this script, download it and save it somewhere (I use /etc/lighttpd/). Enable mod_magnet, and add the following line to the site definition.

magnet.attract-physical-path-to = ("/etc/lighttpd/extension.lua")

SSH agent forwarding and screen

I recently came across an article which tries to address the problem of SSH agent forwarding with screen. Briefly, the problem is that reattaching a screen instance breaks agent forwarding because the required environment variables aren't present in the screen instance. The solution given didn't quite work for me though because I use an SSH wrapper script which automatically runs screen.

My solution is to write a screen wrapper script which stores the environment variables in ~/.sshvars (as export statements) and then starts screen. Running source ~/.sshvars in the shell then makes the variables available. (I created an alias called fixssh to do this.)

I like to put wrapper scripts in ~/bin with the same name. This didn't work out the box however, since ~/bin is only added to PATH in ~/.profile but this file is only sourced if the shell is interactive. The fix is therefore to add the following to ~/.bashrc, but near the top before the [ -z "$PS1" ] && return line.

if [ -d "$HOME/bin" ]; then

Reduce spam by enforcing valid standards

One of the most effective anti-spam measures one can implement is to enforce valid use of SMTP and other standards. Spam clients are interested in sending messages as quickly as possible, and so usually don't bother with actually implementing standards correctly. In this post I shall describe the various checks which can be used, show how to implement these checks in Postfix, and describe how to ensure that your mail server passes these checks when sending mail.

Reverse DNS Entries

RFC 1912 states that "every Internet-reachable host should have a name" and "make sure your PTR and A records match". This can be checked by performing a Forward Confirmed reverse DNS lookup1. This check can be done before even accepting the TCP connection, which means the mail server's existence isn't even revealed to rejected clients.

Postfix: Add reject_unknown_client_hostname to smtpd_client_restrictions.
Passing: Ensure that your mail server has matching PTR and A records.

HELO/EHLO Hostname

RFC 2821 states that "a client SHOULD start an SMTP session by issuing the EHLO command". Almost all SMTP client implementations do do this, and so we can require the use of HELO/EHLO.

Postfix: Set smtpd_helo_required = yes.

RFC 2821 states that "the argument field [of the HELO/EHLO command] contains the fully-qualified domain name of the SMTP client if one is available". Since external mail servers have to be Internet reachable this is a requirement, and can be checked by looking up the name in DNS2.

Postfix: Add reject_invalid_helo_hostname, reject_non_fqdn_helo_hostname and reject_unknown_helo_hostname to smtpd_helo_restrictions.
Passing: Ensure that your mail server is configured to send a fully qualified hostname which exists in DNS.

If there is only one mail server (and possibly even if there are multiple servers), SMTP clients should not be using the server's hostname as the HELO hostname. Clients which do so can therefore be rejected.

Postfix: Add check_helo_access hash:/etc/postfix/helo_access to smtpd_helo_restrictions. Use helo_access as a template for /etc/postfix/helo_access, and run postmap /etc/postfix/helo_access afterwards.

Originator Address

The originator (MAIL FROM) address is where error reports will be sent, and therefore should be a valid address. The only thing which can be checked though is that the address is fully qualified and that the domain exists.

Postfix: Add reject_non_fqdn_sender and reject_unknown_sender_domain to smtpd_sender_restrictions.
Passing: Ensure that your mail server only emits fully qualified addresses. This should happen by default, except possibly for mail submitted with sendmail.

Recipient Addresses

Unless the mail server is a relay or backup MX, it should already only be accepting addresses for which it is the destination. If it is a relay or backup MX the same checks as above can be done.

Postfix: Add reject_non_fqdn_recipient and reject_unknown_recipient_domain to smtpd_recipient_restrictions.

One other check has to do with multiple recipients for bounced mail. Error reports for bounced mail uses a null originator address, and should only have one recipient.

Postfix: Add reject_multi_recipient_bounce to smtpd_data_restrictions.


Unless the client explicitly requests pipelining (as described in RFC 1854), the SMTP conversation must occur in lock step (i.e. the client must wait for a response from the server before sending the next command). Since spam clients are trying to send messages as quickly as possible it is likely that they do not adhere to this requirement.

Postfix: Add reject_unauth_pipelining to smtpd_data_restrictions.

RFC 2821 specifies that the server must send the first message after the connection is established. A neat trick is to delay this initial message to catch out clients which don't wait for it.

Postfix: Add sleep 1, reject_unauth_pipelining to smtpd_client_restrictions. This also requires smtpd_delay_reject = no (explained below).


Since these measures will reject valid mail from misconfigured mail servers, I like to keep an eye on rejections via logcheck. However, some of these measures by their very nature reject the client before it's even sent the originator and recipient addresses, which makes identification of valid mail difficult. Postfix therefore has a feature which delays rejection until after the recipient addresses have been sent. This is enabled by default, but can be disabled by setting smtpd_delay_reject = no.

  1. A reverse DNS lookup is done on the client's IP address, and a forward lookup then done on the resulting hostname. This forward lookup should yield the client's IP address. 

  2. Note that there is no required link between the HELO hostname and the client's PTR record. 

New Knab modules

I've recently been doing a lot of hacking on Knab, which is the software behind the #clug IRC bot, Spinach. I've contributed a number of new modules, most of which are running on Spinach and are available from the main Bazaar repository.


This module is basically a calendar feature which can store and retrieve events such as birthdays. It also handles recurring events (both with rules1 or multiple dates).

<cocooncrash> Something happens on 21 December 2008 at 15:00
<Knab> yessir
<cocooncrash> When is something?
<Knab> something is on Sunday the 21st of December 2008 at 15:00:00
<cocooncrash> Forget event something
<Knab> I've forgotten something

<cocooncrash> My birthday happens on 22 March every year
<Knab> sure
<cocooncrash> How long until cocooncrash's birthday?
<Knab> your birthday is 13 weeks and 1 day away
<cocooncrash> How many days until my birthday?
<Knab> your birthday is 92 days away

<cocooncrash> When is Easter in 2010?
<Knab> Sun 4 Apr
<cocooncrash> What's happening on Tuesday
<Knab> National Chocolate Covered Anything Day and Day of Reconciliation
<cocooncrash> Search events for Outsider 
<Knab> Found: Be Friendly To Outsider Day, Be Hard On Outsider Day, Outsider's birthday, Outsider's dad's birthday,  (showing 4 of 4 results)


This module retrieves messages posted on Twitter and

<cocooncrash> Last twitter update by iolproofreader
<Knab> "The ANC in the Eastern Cape is making it clear: it's either you're with us or not."
<cocooncrash> twitter 1067135354
<Knab> iolproofreader: ""Friend chases after golfer shot""
<Knab> iolproofreader: "Police are planning on more patrols and more scrutiny for travellers crossing the border of Swaziland and Mozambique."


This modules discovers the URL which a shortened URL redirects to.



This module creates a short URL using

<cocooncrash> shorten


This module retrieves an HTTP URL and returns the result of the request.

<cocooncrash> get
<Knab> 200 OK "Google"
<cocooncrash> Is up?
<Knab> Yes, it's up
<cocooncrash> Is Twitter down?
<Knab> No, it's just you


This module gets definitions using Google.

<cocooncrash> gdefine spinach
<Knab> "dark green leaves; eaten cooked or raw in salads  ", "The Spinach (Eulithis mellinata) is a moth of the family Geometridae.


This module retrieves commit messages from a Subversion repository.

<cocooncrash> last commit
<Knab> r721 by trb143 7 hours ago: "Update UI a bit to display columns"
<cocooncrash> commit 700 full
<Knab> r700 by mgorven on 2008/12/15 at 21:14:26 UTC: "Set non-existing config entries if requested with a default value, and create ~/.openlp when saving config file. " M /openlp-2/trunk/openlp/core/utils/, M /openlp-2/trunk/openlp/core/utils/


This module summons people by sending them a message via Jabber.

<cocooncrash> cocooncrash.summon.jabber is
<Knab> gotcha
<cocooncrash> summon cocooncrash
<Knab> I've summoned cocooncrash via Jabber


This module retrieves RSS and Atom feeds.

<cocooncrash> Add feed,,2,00.xml as News24
<Knab> okay
<cocooncrash> latest articles from news24
<Knab> 0: "SA's first San party launches", 1: "Pakistan mall collapse: 3 dead", 2: "Iran warship to fight pirates", 3: "Westwood storms into lead", 4: "US Embassy given the boot", 5: "Jennifer Aniston's chilli Xmas"
<cocooncrash> article 0 from News24
<Knab> "SA's first San party launches",,2-7-12_2444493,00.... : The first San political party has been launched at Upington in the Northern Cape. 
<cocooncrash> article /Palin/ from news24
<Knab> "Drama in Palin household",,2-10-1462_2444295,00.html : The mother of  an 18-year-old man who plans to marry Alaska Governor Sarah Palin's  pregnant daughter, Bristol, has been arrested on drug charges.
<cocooncrash> list feeds
<Knab> m&g, clug park, haiybo, TechCrunch, onion, News24
<cocooncrash> remove news24 feed
<Knab> okay

  1. This feature is provided by the Date::Manip library. 

Playing with Python and IRC

I wrote three IRC bots in [Python][] this last week (although one was a rewrite). They probably aren't very useful to most people, but I'm going to share them anyway in case someone finds them interesting.

The first one was prompted by [Adrian][], who is maintaining a [countdown][] until his wedding as a factoid in [Spinach][]. Since [Knab][] doesn't actually support countdowns, it has to be updated manually. This clearly isn't the Right Way to do this, and so I hacked together a [script][irccountdown] which connects to IRC and teaches Spinach the updated factoid. I run this as a daily [cronjob][] to keep the countdown up to date.

As is usually the case with Python, there was already a library for accessing IRC, namely [irclib][]. It isn't documented very well, but has a couple example scripts which are fairly easy to follow. It follows an event based model, so you write functions which will be called when certain events occur (such as receiving a message).

The final of the [Currie Cup][] was held on Saturday (which my team (the [Sharks][]) won), and I followed the match online using [SuperSport's][] live score site1. I then thought that it would be cool to have the score announced on IRC when it changed, and since I was bored I wrote a simple [bot][rugby] to do this. It worked well, but was very simple in that it only supported one hardcoded channel and one hardcoded game.

Since I was also bored on Sunday I [rewrote][rugbybot] this bot properly. I added a subscription mechanism so that channels and users can subscribe and unsubscribe to games by sending the bot a command. It's mostly working except for listing the available games (since there aren't any rugby games coming up which means that I can't test it ;-) ). Games are specified by the ID used by SuperSport's site, and finding the right ID is currently a manual process.

  1. I'm not really a sports fan — I just enjoy bragging when we do win ;-) 

Sharing links from Konqueror, including to IRC

I follow the main feeds of a couple social news sites (namely Digg, Reddit and Muti). When I find an article which I like, I go back and vote it up on the site. However, when I come across good articles via other sources, I don't submit them to these news sites (or try to find out if they've already been submitted) simply because it's too much effort.

When I started aggregating my activity on these sites on my blog and on FriendFeed, I needed a way to share pages that I didn't get to via one of these social news sites. I ended up setting up Delicious because I found a plugin for Konqueror which made it easy to bookmark pages.

I still wanted to solve the original problem though, and so started looking for an easy way to submit links to these sites from Konqueror. Konqueror has a feature called service menus which allows you to add entries to the context menu of files. I then needed to work out how to submit links to these services, which turned out to simply involve loading a URL with a query parameter specifying the link you want to share.

I created entries for Reddit, Digg, Muti, Delicious, Facebook and Google Bookmarks. These take you to the submission page of the service where you can fill in the title1. Digg and Reddit will show existing submissions if the link has already been submitted.

I often share links on IRC, and wondered if I could integrate that with my menu. It turns out that WeeChat has a control socket, and I could send messages by piping them to the socket. I therefore wrote a script which prompted me for a headline or excerpt using kdialog, and then sent the link to the specified channel. My menu now looks like this:


If you want to set this up yourself, download share.desktop and put it in ~/.kde/share/apps/konqueror/servicemenus. If you want the icons, download shareicons.tar.gz, extract them somewhere, and fix the paths in social.desktop2. To setup the IRC feature (assuming you're using WeeChat), download and save it in ~/bin/. You will need to change the commands in social.desktop depending on the servers and channels you wish to use.

  1. One shortcoming is that the title of the page is not automatically filled in. 

  2. I couldn't work out how to use relative paths, or ~. 

September GeekDinner

I attended my second GeekDinner on Monday evening. It was a fairly small occasion with about 30 people turning up at Asoka in Gardens.

Joe gave a very intriguing talk on lifestyle design. Some of the points included work less and cheat, which I didn't really agree with, but the basic idea of doing the things you love was good. Jonathan then spoke about actually doing something with your ideas, which was quite inspiring. I don't really get "big" ideas, but I'm going to try anyway.

The other Jonathan showed us Half Price Tuesdays which is an idea he's been working on. I'm helping with the alpha test and it's looking very promising. Kerry-Anne then did a fantastic slideshow karaoke prepared by Jonathan. She gave us some tips on how to survive a GeekDinner talk, but unfortunately needs to implement some of those tips herself :-P

Many thanks to Asoka for hosting us, and to Perderberg for the wine sponsorship. I hope to see more people attend next time.

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